What Is Ssl And Tls

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What Is Ssl And Tls

What Is Ssl And Tls

A handshake / TLS is a negotiation between two parties on a network – such as a browser and a web server – to establish the details of their connection. It determines which version of /TLS is used in the session, which cipher suite will encrypt communication, authenticates the server (and sometimes the client as well), and ensures that a secure connection is in place before data gets transfer it.

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All this happens in the background, thank God – every time you send your browser to a secure site a complex interaction takes place to ensure that your data is safe.

That’s the simple version. You may notice that any dozen will describe this format pretty much, and slightly different in a dozen different ways – sometimes it’s confusing. Let’s throw up a chart showing a broad model of how the TLS handshake works, shall we?

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There is some confusion about how the /TLS handshake works because the handshake is only a prelude to the secure session itself. Let’s try to address some common points:

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The handshake itself uses asymmetric encryption – two separate keys are used, one public and one private. Since asymmetric encryption systems have much higher overhead, they cannot be used to provide full-time security in the real world. Therefore, the public key for encryption and the private key for decryption are used only during the handshake, allowing both parties to set and exchange a “shared key” in secret. The session itself uses this single shared key to perform symmetric encryption, and this is what makes a secure connection possible in real practice (the overhead is much lower). So the full and correct answer to “Is encryption / TLS asymmetric or symmetric?” It’s “the first, then the other.”

The handshake itself has different stages, each controlled according to different rules. The details can be found here, but the gist is that the parties can instead have a series of separate back-and-forth discussions (about which keys to use, how the actual handshake encryption, how to validate the handshake etc. ). agree to use a “cipher suit” – a choice or equipment that has already been agreed upon. (Remember that asymmetric encryption is expensive in terms of time and resources – if you use the cipher suite as a shortcut it speeds up the handshake itself.) The TLS specification allows for a large number of cipher suites , and the client and the server are almost always one that both can hire.

Another point of confusion is that the basic model we described above allows the client to verify the server, while the vast majority of sessions secured by TLS only require this. However, the client will need to send a certificate and public key to authenticate both parties. This two-way authentication will of course add to the handshake – however, in some cases (for example, when two banks negotiate a secure connection for money transfers) the cipher suite will stand, and is considered worth the extra security. it is.

What Is Ssl And Tls

A new session is created with each new handshake, and the settings used in one can be very different from others depending on the set of skippers chosen. This is among the reasons why there are so many different versions of that handshake chart, and why we give a fairly broad overview here. Also be aware that sessions can set parameters that may not be exactly what you expect. Depending on the cipher suite, some steps may be added (such as the requirement for two-way authentication) or may not be present. In fact, there are real cipher suites that transact a session without using any encryption. (Yes, we know, an HTTPS connection over port 443 that decides to send data in the clear doesn’t make any sense to us either. It’s strongly recommended that you don’t do this – but be aware that it’s a possibility. )

Importance Of Tls 1.3: Ssl And Tls Vulnerabilities

We hope this information helps you understand the TLS handshake process. Let us know if you have questions or comments – remember, we believe a safer internet is a better internet.”

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I believe many of you are familiar with HTTPS and some of you may have SSL/TLS set up for your web server. But how many of you have a deep understanding of how SSL/TLS works?

There are many questions, and I don’t want to scratch the surface. So this will be a very comprehensive article to tell you everything about SSL / TLS, a very important building block for internet security.

TLS is short for Transport Layer Security, a cryptographic protocol that provides secure communication over a computer network.

What Is Ssl And Tls

First, it is widely used on the web. Every website you visit with HTTPS is secured by TLS, or we often say HTTP over TLS.

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Well, it is easy to see that symmetric cryptography cannot provide authentication. Since there is only 1 secret key for the client and the server, they know nothing about each other for authentication. It’s hard not to mention how they find the same key without releasing it to the public.

What about asymmetric cryptography? He seems like a good candidate. Unfortunately, it is much slower than symmetric cryptography. And by “much”, I mean from 100 times to even 10000 times slower. So it is clearly not suitable for bulk encryption.

First, Alice has a plain text message that she wants to send to Bob, but she doesn’t want anyone in the public domain to read it.

So she encrypts the message with a secret key they’ve shared with each other before. She then sends the encrypted message to Bob via the public internet.

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Since the same key is used for encryption and decryption, it is a form of symmetry, hence the name symmetric cryptography.

Now Harry’s hacker might be there, who can intercept their exchange on the public network. However, the message is already encrypted, and Harry doesn’t have the secret key, so he won’t be able to decrypt it.

Let’s say that this time Alice is not talking to Bob, but talking to her online bank. And she wants to send someone 100 dollars. The message is encrypted with a secret key and sent to the bank via the internet.

What Is Ssl And Tls

Now Harry receives the encrypted message. Although he cannot decrypt it, he can flip some of its bits from 1 to 0 and from 0 to 1, and then forward that modified message to the bank.

Tls 1.2 Transport Layer Security Protocol

Now when the bank decrypts it, they will get different plain text content. In this case, it became 900 dollars instead of 100.

So it is very dangerous. That is why we need to ensure that the encrypted message has not been altered during transmission.

One way to do that is to use Authentication Encryption. The idea is not only to encrypt the encrypted message, but also to authenticate it.

This encryption algorithm takes a shared secret key and a random nonce, or initialization vector (IV) as input. And it will return the encrypted message.

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The encrypted message, secret key, and nonce are input to a MAC algorithm, such as GMAC if you are using AES-256-GCM, or POLY1305 if you are using the CHACHA20 encryption algorithm.

This MAC algorithm acts as a cryptographic hash function, and its output is a MAC, or message authentication code.

Now this MAC will be tagged along with the encrypted message, and the final result will be sent to Bob. Because of this, we sometimes refer to this MAC as an authentication tag.

What Is Ssl And Tls

In TLS 1.3, apart from the encrypted message, we also want to validate some related data, for example: the addresses, the ports, the protocol version, or the sequence number. This information is unencrypted and known by both communicating parties.

What Is A Session Key?

So the associated data is also an input of the MAC algorithm. And because of this, the whole process is called Authentication Encryption with Associated Data, or for short, AEAD.

It’s just a reverse process. Starting with the encrypted message with a MAC, we extract the MAC from the encrypted message.

The encrypted message will then go to the MAC algorithm along with the

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